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Teaching methods are not protected by copyright.

A method of teaching cannot be subject to copyright.
The copyright law, indeed, does not recognize and protect intellectual works as such, but exclusively in the particular forms in which they are manifested.
This is what results from the decision of the Court of Milan n. 9538 filed on 22nd September 2017.

Digital signage and facial recognition: privacy notice required.

Pedestrians who watch advertisements displayed on “totems” (advertising columns that use the digital signage technology) must be specifically informed about the presence of a webcam that captures and analyzes their reactions.
This is what the Data Protection Authority stated by the decision n. 551 dated December 21th 2017.

The difference between “unauthorized access to a data processing or computer system” and “computer fraud”.

By recent judgment nr. 11075 dated March 13-th 2018, Court of Cassation explained that the access to a data processing system for purposes other than the authorized ones, with the aim of benefiting from the stolen data, becomes part either of the offence as provided by art. 615-ter c.c. (computer fraud) or of the one provided by art. 615 – ter c.c (unauthorized access to a data processing or computer system).

A real estate purchase in bitcoin obliges professionals to apply rules to avoid money laundering.

The traceability of bitcoin and other crypto – currencies transactions is a matter of fact. However, the data processing access systems do, without exception, not work on an identification principle but on a mere information and computer credentials check and this does exactly imply the discrepancy with the money loundering regulations: the informatics system which identifies and recognizes pin, password and other credentials is never supposed to guarantee the real identity of the one who makes a transaction.

Il Bonus assunzioni 2018.

A partire dal 1° gennaio il vecchio pacchetto di incentivi per l’occupazione giovanile è stato sostituito dal nuovo

Employment benefits.

The so-called 2018 “Youth Bonus” consists in an INPS contribution relief equal to 50% of the employer’s contributions, up to 3000 euros per annum for 36 months. It can be requested by hiring, from 1 January 2018, young people up to 30 years of age, with a permanent employment contract to increasing protections. Apprenticeships and domestic work contracts are excluded from the benefit, as expressly provided for by the law.

PV modules are “normal landscape aspect”

Administrative Courts provide increasing confirmation about the recent opinion that considers the photovoltaic modules an architectural component compliant with the landscape’s protection necessity, because of the construction style evolution, fully consented by the collectivity. In this respect, by judgment No. 496/2018, Milan Administrative Court has recently ruled that these new technologies are fully inserted in the landscape, innovating it and not being perceived as a negative visual factor. As a result, the competent Authorities will have to ground their possible denials in a specific and detailed way, taking into consideration the important consequence of the proof reversal.

Online contracts: choice of jurisdiction clause valid if accessible through a link.

The jurisdiction clause in an online contract can be extended and is effective if it is an integral part of the general terms and conditions which are mentioned, in the purchase order, by means of a link necessary to access to them.
This is what has been stated by the Italian Court of Cassation with its order no. 21622 dated 19 September 2017.